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Construction & Civil Engineering


Construction & Civil Engineering

Hydraulics, Drivetrain, Engine components, Gears

In an industry where time is truly money, reliability and equipment availability are essential. Each component must operate when needed as designed. X3 Innovations services meet these tough requirements.


Hydraulic components are often subjected to wear, especially sliding wear. In some instances, they will come into contact with the hydraulic fluid itself and this could cause problems if the components are not properly protected.

Depending on the wear characteristic, carburising or ferritic nitrocarburising is commonly used. If protection from severe corrosion is also needed, then the X³ process may be required. Typical treated parts include:

  • Pistons
  • Pins
  • Seals
  • Gaskets


Drivetrains must allow for direction and gear changes, which mean its components must withstand high-torque and high-impact loads.

Various thermal processes are accomplished on drivetrain forgings during the manufacturing cycle ranging from stress relieving and annealing after forging and/or machining operations; to quench and tempering at the final or near final stage of manufacture. Other components require carburising, carbonitriding, ferritic nitrocarburising or induction hardening, depending on properties needed and base material etc. Typical treated parts include:

  • Forgings
  • Transmission components
  • Bushings
  • Sprockets
  • Cams
  • Couplings

Engine components

Any construction project has deadlines to meet and delays may result in monetary penalties. As a consequence, construction machinery, including engine components must be totally reliable to ensure continuous equipment operation. Engine components are designed to meet these needs and thermal processing is often a part of the manufacturer’s critical specification.

Engine crankshafts are often stress relieved or annealed after forging to allow easier machining. Then, the shaft is typically hardened by quench and tempered for strength. After final machining, nitriding is carried out to provide the surfaces subject to wear with a hardened layer. Nitriding is an excellent process for finish machined parts because the low processing temperature does not cause distortion. Typical treated parts include:

  • Bearings
  • Crankshafts
  • Cylinder head
  • Valves


Gears are a feature of all construction machines and equipment and have to be processed to exacting standards to ensure safe operation of the machine and a long working life. Thermal processes provide the necessary methods to create the correct properties needed. Often, finished machined gears need to be heat treated and in this instance, no or minimal distortion can be tolerated.

X3 Innovations can meet these strict requirements utilising the press quench process. Press quenching is a specialty process and requires extensive expertise in operation and fixture design. X³ has a wealth of experience and knowledge with press quenching and it is sometimes the only heat treatment procedure which will meet all the manufacturer’s exacting specifications. Typical treated parts include:

  • Spur gears
  • Helical gears
  • Sun gears
  • Ring gears
  • Bevel gears
  • Pinion gears